Published On: Tue, Sep 11th, 2012

Typhoid Fever : Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis and Prevention

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What is Typhoid Fever and Which is the Causative organism?

Typhoid which is also known as enteric fever is a bacterial that is caused by the bacteria, primarily by Salmonella typhi and also by Salmonella enterica. The bacteria is a gram negative bacteria and is rod shaped.

Typhoid is also known as abdominal typhus, gastric fever, nervous fever, slow fever, infantile remittant fever, pythogenic fever etc.

Typhoid is caused due to poor sanitation and contamination of food, water and milk. The food gets contaminated with the flies and it is also caused due to unhealthy diet habits.

Transmission of Typhoid:

The typhoid is transmitted by the ingestion of the food and water that is contaminated with the faeces of the infected person. The transmission is mainly by oral route and humans are the only means of carriers of the typhoid as the bacteria can survive only at the normal human body temperature.

Symptoms of Typhoid Fever:

The typhoid fever is characterized by the symptoms of progressive increase in body temperature, excessive sweating and rose spots on the chest of the infected person. The other symptoms of the typhoid include:

  • Weakness
  • The patient may feel cold ad tired.
  • The patient may suffer from headache, and body aches.
  • Diarrhoea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Tongue becomes dry with white patches
  • The bones get inflammed
  • Recurrent fever and it mainly occurs at night

Diagnosis of Typhoid:

To know the presence of typhoid fever blood, bone marrow, stool tests and Widal tests are performed to detect the presence of salmonella.

Prevention of Typhoid:

Typhoid fever can be prevented by maintaining proper sanitation and by drinking the boiled water. All vegetables should be washed properly before cooking. Personal hygiene should be maintained well. Wash your hands before eating.

Measures have to be taken to prevent the flies by clearing the stagnant water etc and by keeping the surroundings clean.

Typhoid can be prevented by administering Typhoid live vaccine (oral) and injectable Typhoid polysaccharide vaccine. Booster doses of the vaccine should be taken.

Treatment for Typhoid fever:

The primary treatment involves the administration of oral rehydration salts as the person faces dehydration.

The of choice for the treatment of typhoid comprises of fluoroquinolone like ciprofloxacin and 3rd generation cephalosporins like ceftriaxone or cefotaxime. Cefixime can also be prescribed.

Antibiotic drugs like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole), amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin are prescribed.

Natural remedies for the treatment of typhoid fever:

  • The persons suffering from typhoid fever need to take complete bed rest.
  • Avoid the oily foods and spicy foods. Eat more liquids and gentle foods.
  • juice can be given to patents as it contains C Vitamin that helps in increasing the immunity and fastens the recovery.
  • More water should be taken.
  • Eat the steamed and easily digestable food.
  • Wash the hands thoroughly.
  • Consume a lot of liquids like glucose water, coconut water, fresh , soups etc.

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